Sound problems will generally be corrected with the installation of pavucontrol. If pavucontrol doesn't immediately work, then check Synaptic to make sure pulseaudio, pulseaudio-utils and libgtk-3-0 are installed. With an audio player playing something that you know makes sound, simply try the available choices offered by PulseAudio Volume Control until your sound hopefully becomes functional.
Perhaps not so well known is VLC player can record and save streaming audio and video, albeit, the set-up is rather hidden. First, you will need the URL of the stream. One way to get it is to go to the station's website and play the audio output on VLC. Right Click the station title on the VLC playlist and select Information. Copy the station URL from the ensuing information.
The procedure to set-up recording is as follows (see photos):
Several front-end GUI's are available for Streamripper. The one I like is streamtastic, which is java based but still fairly light. I like streamtastic because any station whose broadcast URL is known can be easily added to the playlist (see the photo). Once added, it is automatically saved. Double-clicking a station will play that station using your associated audio player, which can be set-up in Preferences. Clicking the red record button at the bottom starts the recording which will be automatically saved in the directory that you designate in Preferences. Thus, streamtastic is not only a recorder GUI but also works as a radio menu. It can be added to any of the main menus by using exec=java -jar ~/bin/Streamtastic.jar, provided you put Streamtastic.jar in ~/bin. Streamtastic - simple, functional, reliable and quick!
Sox (Sound eXchange) is an excellent terminal audio editor and recorder. It is to audio what Image Magick is to graphics. It has the advantage over vlc and Streamtastic in that it can record sound regardless of source. It is very easy to set-up a menu launcher for just recording purposes. The image on the left shows my entry in an Openbox Root Menu that produces the menu pictured on the right. It is set for 5 recording modes based upon recording time: 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, unlimited hours, until 2 seconds of silence occurs. Of course, you can change these numbers to any other time intervals that you may desire. The commands are set to save the recordings in ~/Music as a .flac file. A name scheme for recorded files was somewhat challenging because if a fixed name is stipulated and you do multiple recordings each recording will overwrite the previous one, since they will be given the same name. So to reduce the chances of an overwrite, I assigned as name an integer randomly chosen from 1 - 10,000 [$(shuf -i 1-10000 -n 1)].
Sometimes, especially with older CD's, audio players cannot find where to go to play it. The file browser may show the CD contents in /Media/cdrom but the audio player won't play it, because the version it needs is in another directory. To find it with VLC player, first try the playlist skin of VLC (click the appropriate icon on the bottom of the regular VLC skin). Click Devices>Discs. If CD is on the list, right click it and choose "play". If it isn't there, then go back to the regular VLC skin and follow the path Media>Open Disc. Check "Audio CD" and choose a track other than 0. Then, click the drop-down arrow associated with "Disc devise" and choose one of the listed directories and then click "play." Repeat until you find the directory containing the CD audio. The most likely candidate is /dev/sr0, so try it first. This will only play the chosen track. If you want to play without interruption the complete CD, then go back to playlist>Devices>Discs. The CD should be now on the list.
Sound Juicer is an excellent Linux app for ripping CD audio. Not so well known is that it is also an excellent CD audio player that seems to be able to always find the audio.
Computer alert sounds can be turned off by changing the two iNet entries in ~/.config/lxsession/LXDE/desktop.conf from 1 to 0, provided you have this file.